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Full text of "Some facts about Canada's pulp and paper industry [microform]"

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i aO TEST CHART No. 2) 




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18S3 Eail Main SIrMt 

(716) *fl3 - 0300 - Phon, 
(7ie) 2M-5989 - Fo. 






SOME FACTS 

ABOUT 

CANADA*^ 
PULP 

AND 

PAPER 
INDUSTRY 



/ 



odO^^t 



/ 



SOME FACTS 



c 



APOUT CANADA'S PULP 
AND i^APER INDUSTRY 

ANADA i- the Ml >iiil larKi^t |)iil|i and |>.i|)ir 
priidiu iriK iiiiintry in ilic wurhl, and i> rapidly 
civcrlakiiiK the Iiiilfd Stalls, wliitli holds 
lirsl place. 



l'a|Mr «a> lir>l iiiadi' in Canaila at St. Andriw^ 

i^Mic. in ISO.S. 

♦ 
♦ ♦ 

Canada's tirst lar^i' paper mill was built in 1«65, and 
produced 1'^ tons of paper in 24 hours. To-day a 
modern pa^er mill produces from 250 to 300 tons in the 
same length of time. 

I'ruir to 18(10 all paper was made of raws. Since 
that li.iii' W(«)u-|)ul|) has fcjrnied the basis for all the 
ordiiiar\ yrades of paper, including that used for print- 
ini! newspapers 



Canada's pre-eminence as a paper-producing 

(■ountr\ lies in the possession of hundreds of thousands 

of acres of pulp-v..,od forests and to conveniently 

located water- powers. 

* 
* * 

( aiiu la has tin larKisl forest area of any countf 
in the British Einpin-. 



( anada's forests embrace 350,000 si|uare miles of 
pulp-wood timber, estii'^ated to yield 1,033,370,000 
cords of pulp-wood. 



1 



■'"IMl 1 \< I-. MUll I 1 A\ Ml\'- 



< .111.1(1.1 li.i> iliM li>|it'il H.iltr-|m\Mr . i-iiiii.ilrcl 
;il 1.''41,7IK) lip.. lK«iili» iimiIim1(i|m(1 waliT-|Ki\vir-. 
iiic .ill iihilili . 



riurc All- VI imiirinjr.iiril i ciiiii>.iiiir- .iiiil nilui 
niiiiiTiw ill ( .iiMila ciiii.iKiil ill iii.iimliirtiiriiii; |i'il|i or 
li.i|i(r. , 

* • 

Tliiir Kriiiliincd capil.il is oiiiii.iii i| at S.'(H),(KM),(KM), 
\\liirli i> a urialcr ainoiiiil of lapilal ihaii i> iiuoini 
ill any ollnr iiulii-try, wilh ihr < xciplii.n nf Indm. 
cltclrir |xmir (IcvildpimiU. 



The total aiimial output of the Canadian pulp anil 
paper in(liistr\ ixriiils in \ alur >=!<,S,()(MI.(KH), 



1 1 nivts iinployinint to 2.i.lKH) individuals. 

m * 
Its annual iiayroll rxniils S1.S,0(K),(KM). 

It lias sriil niiirr than .>.(HM) nun to thr war. 



In 1890 (anaila's exports of pulp and paper pro- 
diiits amounled to liut S120. In 1910 tlie\ were worth 
SIO.OOO.OOO. I'or the tisial \ear ending with March M. 
1918, thiN reached a total of S7I,7.S.S,.?2.S. 



{ ailada exported paper List >e.ir to the \ ahle ol 
>.^7,742.697; pulp, S2.\67,^„^.iO; jmlp-wood (unniaiiu- 
I'actured), S8,.<.W,278. 



Last \ear's exports of pulp and paper exceeded 
those of the pre'ediHK >ear by S18,8,?0.4,^7. 



l"i i,r AM) i'.vi'i;r indi sikn S 

l'a;;i(l;i's iiiilp aiid |)a|Mr iv|><)rt> liail all 111.11111- 
facliiriiiK indii^lriis. except thai iif evplo^i^i*. 



Last \ear'> e\|)(irt> ,iil pulp ami paper prmliiel- 
excei'ikd In value Canada's tutal iiidii-lrial exiKirt- cil 
101.?. 

* ♦ 

(anada's ex|«irts of pulp and paper pniduels ere '1 

"ixiliailKe" for ('aiiai..i. In tin- I iiileil Stales, at .... 

averai.;!- rate of SiO.rO'M) a day for e\er\ working dav 

in the Vi 

* 
+ * 

While the bulk of Canada's pulp and p.iper e\|><iri> 
K" to th<' Ciiiled Stalls, they are also Miit to C.reat 
Britain. Japan. .Xuslral'a. New Zealand, South .\friea. 
India, Ciilia, .Mexico ; d South .\nierica. 

* 

* ♦ 

In the tirst three nionths of 1918, Canaila's e.X|«)rls 
of wood-pulp to Japan aiiioiiiiled to 1 1 ,.W4.62<J pounds, 
ai. increase of 2,777.4f<6 pounds o\e' 'he eorri'siMmdinj; 
period in 1<>17. and an anioiiiit i - il to live limes 
Japan's total iin|)orts of pulp from ;, . .iiher countries. 

+ 

* * 

Canada produces for sale l.-il^ tons of news-print 
paper and 2,.S()() tons of pulps of all kinds ever\ day. 

The liiited States has 2,.^00 dail\' and Suii(la\- 
newspapers, and 14,(M)0 wicklies, with an approximate 
total circulation of 7 l.OOO.OOO copies. 



With oiu-lifth of llie world's population the liiiled 
States consunies one-ludf of the wiirld's production of 
paper. Canada, in proportion to her populaiion. is a 
close rival of the Cnited Slates as a paper-consumiiiL; 
countrx . 



6 >()M1-: I. MIS AHOl T ( ANADA S 

Thf lU'Wspapcrs iif the I'liitcd States consiiiiH' 
2.(HH),0()() tims of ii(\vs-|)riiil ^■\^■r\ \car, of wliicli 
(aiiadii sii|)|)lii>, approxitiiatrh , oiu-lmirtli. 



Ill 1917, (aiiaila pnidiicicl 650, ()()() tons of iu'ws- 
|)rint paper, (if wliicli 492, 890 tciiis. (ir 76','. weri' 
cxporiid til the lnili'd States. 



Sinee I'Mi Caiiadiaii-made paper lias lieen admitted 
ti) the I'liited Slates free (if duty. 



Canada has 1,^8 daily, and 921 weekly newspapers. 



It takes the pnxhict of 20,000 acres of pulp-wood 
forests every year to supply Canadian newspapers with 
white paper. 



Canadian newspaper puliHshers pay aliout 
53,500,000 a >car for their white paper. 



Some of the largest Canadian and American news 
pajiers consimie from 50 to 100 tons of paper daily. 



The daily consumption of newsprint paper in 
Canada is, approximately, 250 tons; in the United 
States, 5,750 tons. 



Canada's daiK' output of paper, made into a con 
tinuotis strip three feet wide, would lie lonn enotiiih to 
:,Mrdle the s^lobe at the equator. 



IH 1.1' AM) I'Al'KK IMH STRY i 

The principal piil|) iiiid paper mills of ("aiiaila arc 
located in the provinces of (Juebec, Ontario. .\i\v 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and British Colnnihia. 



Spruce, balsam lir, hemlock, jack pine, tamarack, 
poplar and liasswood are used in the manufacturi' of 
pulp. 



(Juehec's annual production of pulp-wood exceeds 
1,000,000 cords. Ontario comes next with about 
SOO.OOO cords. 



It lakes, ai)i)n)xiniately 1 ' .j cords of wood to make 
a Ion of paper. 



Spruce trees, best suited to the production of pulp, 
require from 100 to KSO years to arrive at maturity. 



Reafforestation is practiced to a limited extent in 
fome of the jmivinces. 



Forest fires are a source of ^reat loss to the Canadian 
pulp and paper industry and eat up millions of cords 
of wood-pulp evcr\' year. 



Where coal is used to generate powiT in the operation 
of jjaper mills it takes, approximately, a ])ound of 
coal to produce a ])ound of paper. 



The average labor cost of producing a ton of paper 
has increased 7,S ])er cent, in the period 1912-1918. 



SOME FACTS AHOl T CANADA S 



HOW PAPER IS MADE 

The first step in the process of convcrtiiiR a stniidinK 
tree into a sheet of white paper talies place in the forest, 
it may be 200 miles or more distant from the paper-mill 
proper. The tree is cut down and in time — it ma\- be a 
year or longer— it finds its \va>- to the storage jards 
at the mill. The Iors are usually- floated down to the 
mill on nearl)>- streams; where streams are not avail- 
able the\' are carried In' rail. 

The first step in the process of converting the wood 
into paper after the logs have arrived at the mill is that 
of removing the bark. This is accomplished !)>• one 
of two t\pes of machines. The first type is called the 
tumbler. It consists of a large cylindrical drimi. Into 
this drum the logs, in 2-foot lengths, together with a 
suitable quantity of water, are introduced. The 
drum is then caused t(j revolve, and the friction of the 
logs against the side of the drum and against one 
another removes the bark. The second type is called 
a barker, or rosser, and consists of a heav>- iron disk, 
provided usualh- with three knives fixed to its surface 
and projecting about half an inch from it. The disk 
is rotated rapidh' and when the logs are presse<l against 
its surface the biirk is shaved off by the knives. 

After being barked the pieces of wood are converted 
either into •'mechanical" pul]) or into "chemical" 
pulp. The former is not suitable alone for paper- 
making because it contains only about .S.S jvr cent, of 
cellulose, which is the essential ingredient of the 
finishid paper, and thi' fibres are too short and stiff 
to felt or interlace together properly: hence it is mixed 
with a certain (luanlity of chemical |)ulp which is pure 
cellulose with fibres of greater length. 

Mechanical pulp or ground wood is proiluccd by 
apphing the i)ieces of wood by hydraulic presstire to the 
face 'of a large grindstone, usualh' about .S4 inches in 
diameter and 27 inches thick. This grindstone rotates 
at a high rate of speed within a casing, which is pro- 



PLl.P AM) PAPIiK IN'DISTRV 



') 



vidud with ixH-kfts into whicli tlic picrts of wood are 
introduced and pressed against the stone. The wood 
grinders are operated ahiiost exehisiveh' by water 
power, but are sometimes propelleil b>- eleetrieity. 

The ground wiod comes from the grinders in the 
form of slush, which is then screened in order to remove 
the coarser particles. In the older mills this screening 
is done \:\ small troughs with line screen plates in the 
bottom. Rotary screening is now coming into general 
use. The slush is run into a revolving cylinder with 
screen pUites in its surface. The centrifugal force 
throws the liner particles of slush through thesi> screens. 

After the slush has been screened it is ready to be 
used for paper-making. Where the ground wdod mill 
is a part of the paper mill, or not too far distant from 
the i)ai)er mill, the ground wood slush is jnped in with- 
out converting into pulp. Where it is necessary to ship 
the ground wood by rail it is compressed until from 
30 to 50 per cent, of the water is scjueezed out. 

THE SULPHITE PROCESS 

Spruce wood, in addition to cellulose, contains a 
considerable amount of non-fibrous material, which is 
dissolved and separated from the cellulose by cooking 
the wood imder pressure, with a solution of bisulphite of 
lime. This is known as the sulphite process. The 
wood is first chipped up into small jjieces b>- a machine 
which consists of a massive iron or steel disk about 84 
inches in diameter, with two or three steel knives pro- 
jecting from the surface of this disk ami radiating from 
the centre. This disk is caused to revolve rapidly, 
and the logs are applied to the surface of the disk, 
usually at an angle of 4,S°. The knives then chij) off 
flakes of wood from the end of the log at that angle. 

There are two methods of preparing bisulphite of 
lime for use in the sulphite process, designated respect- 
ively the "tower" system and the "tank" system. 
In the tower system, which is in most general use, 
sulphur is burned in specially constructed ovens with 



10 



SOMK IAIT> ADO! I ( ANADA ; 



ii limited aiiKiiint of air, sii a^ to fciriii sulphur dioxidf 
i;as. This is run out ihroutih pipis, which riilrr into a 
tank of water to cool the s;as and thru into tall towers, 
usually of wood, with a liiiiiiK of lead. These towers 
may lie eoiisiderabh- over 100 feet in height and from 
5 to 10 or more feet in diameter. The towers are 
tilled with Mocks of limesioni', and a continuous stream 
of water is introdticcd from the top of the tower. .\s the 
f;as passes upwards through the limestone it enters 
into combination with the water and lime, so that the 
litpiid tlowinj; out at the bottom of the tower is a 
solution of bistdphite of lime. 

In the tank s\steni, otherwise called the "milk-of- 
lime" systim, water and lime are mixed in a lars;c vat, 
and the sulphur dioxide s,'as is forced into the mixture 
to form bisulphite of lime. The ])rocess varies in 
detail, of course, from plant to plant. An amount of 
sulphur approximatini; from 2.S0 to 300 pounds is 
required in the production of a ton of air-dry pulp. 

The chemical process of making sulphite is con- 
ducted in large boilers, commonly called "digesters." 
These may be of varying type, but the one in alinost 
universal use is a tall cylindrical vessel, sometimes 
being of suHticient size to produce from 11 to 16' 9 net 
tons of pulp. The digi'sters are constructed of boiler 
plate and are lined with acid-resisting brick or tile set in 
acid-proof mortar. This, of course, is to prevent the 
acid develo|K(l in the process from corroding the metal 
of which the digester is constructed, but has also tno 
further advantage of effecting a considerable saving in 
steam, because of the fact that this lining acts as a 
heat insulator. The digesters taper to a cone at the 
top and bottom I'uds. 

The process of cooking varies considerably in 
different plants. In general, after the chips t>i wood 
and the bistdphite of lime hax'e been introduced, the 
manhole is dosul. and steam isi^radualh forced in at the 
bottom. This is continued until the steam pressure 
reaches about 80 jioimds and the temperature about 
36,1°. The process of cooking is contiimed about eight 



I'l 1.1" AND I'AI'KK IM>l>TRV 



il 



hours. At the ind iif the idokiiiK prucrss tlir luitlci at 
thi' bottom of llic (lii;istiT is oiKiU'd. and llic stc.iiii 
pressure (luicklx forces the material out iuto a lari^e 
iiin willi a screen bottom. ihroUKh which the liijuid 
drains off. .\t this point the pulp usttalK is washed for 
about three hours b\- means of water delivered at the 
top of the bin. The ligneous and resinous portions of 
the wood, l)ein;4 in solittiou, to a jjreat extent ai^e 
washed a\v.i\-. Spritce-wood pulp obtained in this 
manner lontains about 8S pir cent, of cellulose, while 
untreated spruce wood contains only about .S.S percent. 
KoUowinK this the chemical pulp is scn'eiied to 
remove coarse hbres, knots, slivers, and the like, in 
much the same manner as the mechanical pulp. 

CONVERTING PULP INTO PAPER 



The paper-making process proper begins in the 
"beaters," where the various component substances of 
thi' finished product are mixed. 

The beaters are large receptacles of various types, 
the important conimon characteristic of which is a 
cylindrical roll fitted with steel or bronze blades, which 
revolves o\er a stationary concave bedplate equip])ed 
with similar blades. The pulp is caused to circulate in 
the vat so that all of it will pass under this roll about 
an equal number of times. At the beginning of the 
operaticm the roll is raised slighth' above the bedplate 
and then gradually lowered as the operation is con- 
tinued, until the fibres have been sufficiently torn 
apart, and the various ingredients have been thoroughl;. 
mixed. 

In the case of newsprint ])aper the proportion of 
mechanical to chemical pulp varies according to the 
(]uality of the paper desiri'd, type of machines, etc. 
On the average about 80 per cent, of mechanical jnilp 
is mixi'd with aliotit 20 per cent, of cl-.emical jiulp. 
\'arious other ingre<lients are also introtluced, such as 
talc or china clay which is used as a filler to render the 
jiaper more opa<iue. and to give it a smoother surface, 



A TYPICAL CANADI 



""^^mm- ■ I 




A typical Canadian Paper Mill illustrating the process of lurning logs into paper; on the extreme left are tliefallQ supplying the motive | 
pulp tnill, alter which it is pumped through the runway to the paper mill on the right. It will be seen that to facilitate handling th 
which form the townsile. In many_ cases the rri\> i3_the only industry in ttie town. 



^NADIAN PAPER MILL 



«-£**• 




plying the motive power, electricity. The wood is taken from the water and either stacked in the wood pile shown on side of river or sent to 
;ilitatB handling the railroad tracks run into the inill itself. In the background may be seen the homes of those employed in the mill and 



14 



SOME KAITS AUOIT CANADA'S 



and iiquul rosin, which is used to "size" the pajier so 
that the printing ink will not be absorbed and thus 
cause the impressions to become blurred. Red and 
blue aniline dyes are added, when obtainable, to make 
the paiK-r white. Alum is also added to precipitate 
the rosin and the coloring matter upon the fibres. 

After the beating process has been completed, the 
pulp, very much diluted with water, is run into a 
so-called stuiif chest, in which it is kept in constant 
motion to prevent the pulp from settling to the bottom. 
r"rom this chest the pulp or slush passes through a 
strainer and into a long narrow box placed at the head 
of, and across the full width of, the paix-r machine. 
Thence it overflows onto a wire screen bell consisting of 
fine copper wires, woven with 60 or 70 meshes to the 
inch. The length of this screen is often 75 feet and the 
width 150 or more inches. This belt moves forward 
on a series of rolls, and also has a lateral shaking 
motion. The pulp settles down upon this screen in the 
form of a wet sheet, much of the water draining through 
the mesh of the screen. Toward the farther end of 
the screen it passes over several vacuum boxes, which 
cause still more moisture to lie sucked out through the 
screen. The speed at which the screen is run is as 
high in some cases, as 680 feet per minute. 

At the end of the screen the sheet passes between 
two rolls called the couch rolls, the upper one of which 
is covered with a felt jacket. From the screen 
belt the sheet runs on to a woolen felt. Thence it 
passes between a series of so-called press rolls, the 
purpose of which is to squeeze out further quantities 
of water. Finally, the sheet is run over several large 
hollow cast-iron cylinders 4 or 5 feet in diameter, heated 
internallv by steam. These rolls dry the paper thor- 
oughly. The sheet then passes through the calender 
rolls, which polish the surface, and is wound u\ m a 
roll. The rolls of paper later are removed and rewound 
upon cores, the paper being trimmed and cut to the 
proper width at the same time. They ar then removed 
to the finishing room, where they arc wound with 



PILP AND PAPER INDISTKY 



15 



heavy wrapping pajxr to protect them in shipment, 
and from there at ■ shipix-tl to the newspaixT establish- 
ments ready for tne printing press. 

CANADA'S TEN LEADING EXPORTS 

(From the Aniimil Report of the Peparlniext of 

Trade and Commerce for the 

Calendar Year 1017.) 

Grain and grain products (including flour) $480,175,160 

Explosives 434,970,810 

Meats (beef, bacon and all other kinds) . 77,040,771 

Pulp and Paper products 62,126,85' 

Wood, unmanufactured 52,210,949 

Dairy products (butter, cheese and milk) .",959,684 

Iron and steel products 43,929,069 

Fish of all kinds 27,557,377 

Vehicles 23,493,145 

Copper... 23,256,276 

The Pulp and Paper industry is the largest of our 
manufacturing exports, with the sole exception of 
explosives. 

WHAT PAPER AND PULP MEAN TO 
A COUNTRY AT WAR 

A "scrap of paper" does not mean much to the 
German nation where the observance of a treaty is 
concerned, but as a means i f carrying on the war it 
is of vital importance to them, and to all the nations 
engaged in conflict. 

Early in the war Germany discovered that wood- 
pulp could be substituted for cotton in the manufact-ire 
of explosives and gun cotton. 

Almost all of Sweden's pulp has been shipped to 
Germany for this purpose. 

Thousands of tons of paper are used in despatches 
and military correspondence outside of the great 
volume of private letters between England and France, 
and all part'* of the world. 



16 



SOME FACTS AHOIT CANAI.a's 



\oluntary colUrlors arc koIhk thrimnh RiiRlaiid 
RathcriiiK wastf painr l<> Iw repiilpcd and used for 
packinu and waslurs in shells and homhs. 

('.rial <|uanliliis of wrappinn paper an<l eartons 
have l>een ordend liy the T. S. C.overnnient for the 
packinn of siipphes. 

The I'. S. Coverninenl will use 1()(),0(M),(KM) |)oiinds 
of paiHT this year for spreadinK information about the 
war. This is about four times the normal reqnirements. 

C.reat snceess has attended the reeent discovery 
that artificial cotton batting can be niadi' from wood- 
pulp, and this, together with paper bandaRcs for 
hospital use, has defeated the |)ossil)ility of a shortage 
in these supplies. 

Paper blankets are now beinR made for military 
use and will, no doubt, be available for civilian use iii 
the near future. 

In humorous vein the absolute <lep>'ndenc\ of the 
human race on " the Scrap of Paper " ma\ be'-.unnned 
up as follows: 



A PAPERLESS DAY 

-NO I'.APKR TO-D.\V ? 

Is that what they say ? 

No cliirks. drafts nor notes — 

No liills, lilanks nor votes. 

No letters from folks ! 

No need for dictation — 

No bond in the nation. 

No paper Containers, 

No legal Retainers, 

No paper men fawn. 

No waste baskets yawn ! 

No parcels wrapped up, 

No "scraps" for the pup! 

No blotters to tlout. 

No (lolls to clip out. 

No crisp breakfast Hakes, 

No f*archment wrapi)ed steaks ! 

No wrappers for Bread, 

.\o books to be road. 

No files to search through. 

Why, there's nothing to .Jo ! 



Pl'I-P AND PAPKK INDI STHY 17 

THE GHOST OF THE TREE 

StroHR as thf wimrIu of ilif avalanclic, 
Yet weak as hriHik' ithcd vapor, 
I must olx'y — l)iit tiiin I sway— 
Behold me I am painr. 

I am h;int of the heart of the Tree, the Rhost of the hemlcK-k and 

spruee. 
I'hantcmi of fihre and wraith of the wikkI hv tlie axe of the 

ehopiMT turne<l I(ki»i\ 
j'ased in the eoftininR l>ark lonR was I hi(hlen and furled, 
Hut now !)>• the manual nuiRir of men I earr\ the news of the 

world. 

I am free— free -free — 

I, the soul of the Tree, 

Jo\- and sorrow and terror or smiles- seek for them all throiieh me. 

ramc and name anil shame, 

To me they are all the same, 

I earr>- them all to the enils of the earth. 

Horror and pleasure and mourninR and niirlh, 

And to mi neither credit nor hiame. 

I am f'aper. I am Paper, pallid spirit of the spriir,.. 
Summoned far from souRhmg forests, iiatienl servant for vour use. 
rhey were sent who stormed the mountains on which, silent and 

serene. 
Crowding massed the ranks of woodland. miRhty .Xrnn- of the 

t>reen. 
First the woiKlelves saw with terror (lash and llirker of the axe 
.^nil they watched the steady heaviiiR of the hroad, red-shirted 

backs : 
Then they heard the pulsing chojiping as the axes chocked and 

chocked. 
And they felt the forest's tremor as the toppling giants rocked. 
Ihen as hack and e\er backward were the ekes constrained to 

(lee. 
On the bark they knocked and whispered: ■Wake, () (ienii of 

the Tree!" 



I am Paper, I am Paper. Have vou praises or abuse 
hor the mes.sage I am bearinir '' '.k to them, who set me loose- 

Look to them who sent me through the boiling sluices' 

jaws, 



18 



AlHH I ( ANAIlA ■ 



Ami 111 tin Ml ulin Im M ilif till- irunk-' n» ihf \illii»n u-iih of >,iw>. 

Vl-«.. Id llu-in will' tn-Mtl llu' ynMul-. i>l tllf MKlilfll. ilriplHtlK MfMMl 

I'm tin- -I.iMTiiiK. nr.itiiiu urnnltr. v;riinliiiw "lUMth it- imn IumkI. 

I'"nr ilu-\ trcr Irmn -.nliil liiTf iniulil and -|.irit n( tjir irir 

Til, It in r.iif u'rr wliirrinv; ^icinnlrun'- tiAturr look .itnl Inmi 

in Mr. 
Il' I wrt'ticli yniir mhiI v\iili .iMv;Mi>.li liy llu- ini"*>.iKr tli.il I Ihmt. 
JjKik lu iln-ni wlin dull nu wliiirm-..- i\u>^v wlm ^pn-.u! tin- 

|Miis<l|l tJKTC. 

I .tin l*.i|ii'r. I ,ini r.i|H'r. --I.inilinvt n .idv inv \imr t.ill. 
\Vhitf and >ilftil .ind nri^i)ntu-d; I -itn ^trl and >lavf l<» all. 
Haw you thnnniit nr in'.piratiiin :* 

Ilavr yiin wiird tn M-nd or >avf f 
I inn wailing, (■dm and paiifiit, >tiU ynur M'r\ant .uid your slave. 
Write! What ir< il, ihn-at or wrn-l, harKain, (iK'dnf. or s.d('. 

or l)t).isl .'' 
Siyn ! All. inort..!, I Ii.ive Ihkuu) you! 

Mark you well the fori->tV ^;llo^t ! 
Here I >land and threat and moek yon, j.hath-of |ironiise. delit, 

or fraud. 
\V(trk and pay or pray for nu-rey ! 

\tn\ are servant. I am l.ord. 



I am ha'nt of the heart of the Tree, the ^huM of the hemlock ai. 

spruee, 
[ 'haiUom of fibre and wraith of the woikI liy the axe of the ehopper 

set liH>se. 
HearinR the news of tlie world, or message of cheer or ni hojie. 
Kindin^i to Itonda^e of delit or of shame, or <lranK'"S i» neck to 

the roiH'-. 
1, the soul of the Tree. 
1 lover from sea to sea 

Theirs the fault or theirs the praise who have helped to set me free. 
1 ame and name and shame; 
To me they are all the s;ime; 
They who have drained me out of the wimkI, 
Be I for evil, he I for good. • 
To them he the credit or hlame. 
('■rim as the weight of the avalanche, • 
Vet weak as l)rook-hreathed vapor. 
1 must ol)ey hut then I sway: 
Behold me I am l^lpe^. 

H<u.M.\N K. Day. 



IM I.I' AM) I'AI'I K IMil s|K\ 



\<> 



THE PULP AND PAPER INDL'STRY AND THE 
PERPETUITY OF tU'R EORESTS 

Ifr.iw /*,■ Inr.tllln S.llltnlny Slillh 

Ciii.mI.i li.i- 111!' I.irui-!.! linilK-r .iri'.i iif .my ((Hiniry ifi llii- 
KrilUh I'.nipiri' .mil ilu- l,i.ui->i in iln- wnrlil, rxrlii>iM' cif Kii—i.i 
.mil till- I niiiil Si. 111-.. Ilir .ni.i of |iiil|i-W"i«l lur>r.i- .ilinir 
spniir. Ip.il-.mi. lir, hirrilcrk. i.ii k \nw. I.irn.ir.ii k. |ni|il.ii, 
Ip.is-«imkI. I.inli .mil Mi.ipic' i- i-liin.il.d l.. n.vrr .V'll.lllHI 
-i|u.ir.' mili> .mil i.. Ik- r.iji.ilili' ..I \ iililiim l.lM.t.,(Tli.(Ki<i i "nU nl 
|.iiI|i-wikhI. llir fiirc-l prniliiil- .iil.l Ti|i\v.iril- ..I .SJIHI.IKIIMHHI 
.miiiL.illy Intliiwr.illhiil Ihr iniiiilr\, .iiid r.mk micuiiI .iriinnj; nur 
wf.il t li- 1 >riM luring rixiuri i>. 

.\|i.irl .llI^^;l■^lll■r, himrvrr. Ii lliiii \.ilui' .1. .1 himIiIi- 

lirmliiriilK .iKi-niy "iir (..n>l-. >irvi- .1 -liM innri' iimIiiI piiriwiM-. 
'I'liry priiliTl I'ur .ir.ilili- l.md. Iroin iiri>in;lil .mil iliv .i.l.ilinn 
.milkii'ii lluiil in ,1 rimililii'ii nl |iriMliiilivini-.>. I'liiy al>ii 
ni.iki' pii^Mhli- oilr iiiirivalli'il w.itiT-m.wiT.. wliii h .irr pl.iyinu 
Miih Mn irnpori.mi p.irl in nnr inilii.lri.il ili-.iii>pnu'nl .inil npoii 
uliiill «r inn.l ili|H-nil in nrr.itir nir.i-uri. .i. mir fnri .iipplu'. 
Iifi-nnir niorr and nmrr rxlinn.lfil. 

I'll iliiinili' A iiinnlry .ilwiluuly nl il> li 
w.iy (iir ii> ilr-iil,iiiiin. if mil ii. nliiin.m- 
i. pnintril ti) a. .in I'xallipU- nl wli.it in.n 
■illnw. its liiri'sl. Ill Iir lU'.triH'il. (liM- 
wiallh. Iinlli ill liniUr .mil in .iK> " nllnral I 
il. fnri'.l. .illnwi'il liirriMitial r.iin. In -wi-i-p 



iri'.l. i- In p.iM- llir 
ili-.lrnilinii. lliin.i 
liif.ill .1 l.ircl whirh 
a riiiinlr\ nl \a.t 
llU. till' ri'iunwil ni 
All il> nnpriitci ti'd 
liillsidi'srarrviiit; \.i.l c|n.intilii'snf ..mi', .mil t;r.i\i-l wliii'li invin-il 
.mil ili'.trnyi-d ininini.i' Irart. nl' .ir.ihlr l.ind .mil rrnilrnil lln nl 
nntit Inr lultivalinn. Tn-iLiv I'llina i. .1 ili>iilau-. ■.nrlii-s 
rnunlry.anil I'mil.Kri'.il dil'lirully in wri-.lini; .1 nUMk;i 1 .n.lrnamv 
I'rnni liiT inipiivi-ri.liiil .nil. Ollii-r iniinlrii'. In .1 less cstcnl. 
haw .nlfiTid luM\ily llirniiKli tliiir iniprii\iili'nl llsi- nf tlii'ir 
l.in-st ri'snnrci'.. Wiuri- lliry li.ivi- nnl nlliTly ilistriiynl llif 
prndni-tiliility nl Ihrir .inriiiillnr.il l.mil., Ilii-y Ii.im' l^i'in pill In 
i-nnrinniis i-\pt-n.t-' In rcrKiini land. .11 nii.n.ril. In .niiu' nf tlu'in 
it lias lii'in pn..ilili In rcpl.mt diiuiik-il ninnni.un .Inpi.. ,il v.r^■M 
l.ilmr and i..\piii.o, In cnpi' wilh ilrifliiiK ..mil. .mil mm iili.il 
r.iiii..\vliiih ihriMlcnid iilililiratinn nf lluir .iHriiiiluiri' a. wi-ll 
a. tin- di'.lrnilinn nf many nf lluir villam-s. 

.A bulk-till nn llii. snliii-it ri.-i-i-iilly is.ni-d by tin; I'liiti-d Slal.-s 
Di-parlnu-nt nl .\^;ril■||ltllr^- .ays that: ' liijndicinns ili-ariilK 
nll.ind nn which fnri-sl ciivi-r slinnlil .ilw.iys li.iM- l-i-i-n ni.iinlaiiud 
lias Ill-Ill i.:u- nf till.- main laust-s nf nnm-i-i-ssary land i-rn.iiin in llial 
rnnntrv. 'riiniisanils <if ai'res have ln-i-n rt-nik-rt-il inunllivatabli- 



20 



SOME F A( TS AliOlT CANAIlA S 



fnmi thi;. cause." 'I'hi' Dtparlnunl istimatc!. llu' annual liiss tii 
till' rnkcd Stall's from this i-nisii'M of land al nut less than 
S1(III.()()0,()(HI. 

Ill our (iwn TOunlr> wi' haw sainplfs iif the ruin wtouhIiI 1i\' 
ircf-ili'slnirtion in the strrilc anil lilarkcni-il tire-swept wasles o'f 



the liarren sanil-en\-ereil areas 



NortluTn Ontario anil in 
(Jlieher anil other proxinee 

rile inHuenie of trees U|)oii eliniatic lonililions is also an 
important eonsiileralioii in the t|uesli<>n of the preservation of 
our forests. Trees moilerate the severity of lioth heat and 
i-old. They ei|ualize the rainfall, alTord protection anainsl 
hu;rieaiies. retard the nieltinj; of aeeuniulateil .snows, regulate 
the run-otT to the streams and rivers, prevent floods and liv 
etlualiziuK the water-flow throURhout the year render an inial- 
eulalile service to our na\ ij;alile streams and water-powers. 

( untrary to a popular misconception, the forests of Canada 
are by no means inexhaustihle. .Neither .ire thev, as some 
iiclieve, self-perpetuating. l-"roiii ,<.S to 7,i years is declared 
to lie the maximum life of our (iresent forests .at our present 
rate of consum|)tion, and with our present meagre attention to 
rcalTorestatioii. Some of our once-important tree species are 
already practically extinct or rapidlv approaching that condition. 
\Ve no longer supply Kngland witli her oak for ship-liuilding. 
White pine, our wood of greatest utility, is exhausted in Oueliec. 
Spruce, once regarded as the only desirable species for the 
manufacture of pulp and paper, is being supplanted bv inferior 
woods owing to its increasing scarcit\-. T'rces which escape the 
woodman's axe not infrequentU- fall a' prey to lire, to the natural 
elements or to disease. 

In recent years the importance as well as the actual necessit\- 
(if doing something to conserve and to renew our forest growths- - 
if we are to continue to use them as a source of national w calth. as 
well as to enjoy the natural advantages which thev undoubtcdlv 
bestow— ha\e impressed themselves upon all wlio have gi\eli 
the subject any thought. The riovernment of the Dominion as 
well as those of the various proxinces ha\e taken some steps in 
the matter. But it has remained for private interests- the 
owners and the lessees of the timlier lands to attempt to meet 
the situation in a really etTectixe w.iy. This has been done b\ 
the organization of various co-operative systems of tire pro- 
tection. l)y experimentation in realforestation, and bv the 
adoption of scientihc methods of culling, etc. 

.-Ml these things, of necessity, consume capital. It lakes a 
spruce tree, suilable for the manufacliire of pulp, from lllll to 
l.sti years to allain ils full growth. Private capilal engaged in 
ihe work of repi, lining our forests for the beneht of generations so 
lar in the distant future, neei.s to have a broad vision and an 
undeniable faith. Bui private capital can onlv do its work 



I'l II' AMI l'AI'l-.l( INIil MKV 



M 



I'llccliwly whcTiMI isallinvi-(l,miiili(|U.ilcrvliiniiiii il>o|ici-,iliiiii>. 
If lllL' peiiplc. as a whiilu, nrv iinwillinsi 1" ussimu' llu- hurdcii of 
kirpinK lip "iir forests and of loukinfi: to tlu-ir future rciiraal liv 
sni'iitihc systems of ri--i)laritinK. if tlnv eontima- lo pass alon'' 
this rcspoiisiliility lo llu- people who eut and nianufactiire lln' 
wood from our forests, they siirelv ounht nol to deal nignardK 
«ilii Iheni when lixnin ,i rale of relinn whieh tliev iiia\ lawfiilK 
rieei\e lor llieir labors. 

The piilp and jiaper nidnslrv, which is proliaMv most n.n 

lerned rn the perpetuation of our w I >uppK . and whii li ha- 

shown a slroiiK desire to do ils sli.ire in hrinKin); .dioiil such 
perpelualion. cannot heexpeiled to work iMi|ios~ilaiilii>^. M ii i, 
lo he held iIowti lo the point of a liare suslc nance in tile iarr\iiia 
on of u^ aclixilies, it cannot he expected, nor will it Ik- ^ihli" 
to ilevole the means necessary to the presi-nl upki-eii and tin- 
luliire renewal ol our forisis, '['Ik- (piestion is one that should 
ennaKe llu- allenlion of ihe aiilhorilies at Otiawa. I'or jjoinu on 
1 wo years now 1 hey have been i-njiaKed in enforciie; i-i-pressi\e 
measures upon our pulp ami paper manufacluri-rs, and h.i\(- 
.treally reduced their elTecliveni-ss in carrvinn on ihi- ninih- 
nee(l(-d national service.